The East & West of Deepfakes: A Comparative Study of Laws in India & UK

  • Shraddha Pandit and Jia Singh
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  • Shraddha Pandit

    Assistant Professor of Law & Ph.D. Candidate at SVKM’s KMPSOL, NMIMS Deemed to be University, Mumbai campus, India.

  • Jia Singh

    Student at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi, India.

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Deepfakes are a form of synthetic media that utilize deep learning and artificial intelligence techniques to create or modify content, such as audio, video, or images, in order to appear genuine and authentic. The term "deepfake" is derived from the combination of "deep learning" and "fake." The technology behind deepfakes relies on neural networks, specifically generative adversarial networks (GANs) or autoencoders, to analyze and replicate patterns from existing data, such as movies or photographs of a specific individual. This enables deepfakes to manipulate speech or facial expressions, replace faces in videos, and generate content that is difficult to distinguish from real and unaltered media. While deepfake technology has potential applications in industries like entertainment and visual effects, it has also raised concerns due to its potential for misuse. Deepfakes can be used to create convincingly fake videos with malicious intent, such as spreading false information, fabricating news, or producing explicit material involving unsuspecting individuals. In India and the UK, the growing use of deepfake technology has highlighted the need for stronger legal frameworks to address issues related to privacy, data protection, and cybercrime. While existing laws can be utilized to combat deepfakes, specialized legislation specifically targeting the challenges posed by deepfakes is necessary in the current landscape. Deepfakes have emerged as a significant cyber threat in India, particularly targeting popular figures such as actors, celebrities, and sports personalities. This threat affects individuals across various demographics, regardless of age, gender, religion, class, or social status. It is time that countries join hands across borders to lessen the negative impact of and eventually eliminate cyber-crime and deepfake technology.


Research Paper


International Journal of Legal Science and Innovation, Volume 6, Issue 3, Page 1324 - 1336


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